Italy is racing to diversify the sources of gas supply.
The goal is, by winter, to fill the storage with 12 billion cubic meters (plus 4 emergency) to cope with the cold months and as soon as possible, within two to three years, get rid of dependence on Russia. . From Moscow last year we imported 29 billion cubic meters of gas (38% of our consumption).
– GAS PIPELINES. The starting point are the five gas pipelines that reach Italy in Mazara del Vallo, Sicily (Transmed), Melendugno, Puglia (Tap), Gela, Sicily (Greenstream), Passo Greis, Piedmont (Transitgas ) and Tarvisio, in Friuli (the Tag, from which Russian gas arrives via Ukraine).
–ALGERIA. The agreement with Algeria, which is Italy’s second largest supplier after Russia, brings gradually increasing supplies through the Transmed pipeline to another 9 billion cubic meters in 2023-2024.
– AZERBAIJAN. Other additional flows are expected from Azerbaijan, destination of the previous diplomatic mission, through the TAP. Baku has pledged to supply an additional 2.5 billion cubic meters of natural gas up to 9.5 billion. A market analysis is also underway for the doubling of the gas transported up to 20 billion cubic meters which, if successful, would take about 4 years to build, without the need for new infrastructures.
– LIBYA. Additional smaller supplies could also come from Libya, which imports 3.2 billion cubic meters through Greenstream, but has, according to the government, currently maximized capacity. From Northern Europe, on the other hand, no increase in imports is expected.
– THE OTHER COUNTRIES. Altogether there are seven countries with which Italy would be in negotiations for new supplies. The diplomatic missions of the Foreign Minister, Luigi Di Maio, have reached in recent weeks, in addition to Algeria and Azerbaijan, Qatar, Congo, Angola and Mozambique to strengthen energy cooperation. The prime minister, Mario Draghi, is expected to visit the last three soon to close the agreements.
–LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas). In particular from Qatar, which is the first supplier in Italy of liquefied natural gas (LNG), and Egypt is expected to arrive with Eni an additional 3 billion cubic meters in 2022 and 5 billion in 2023, another 5 billion would come from Congo in 2023 -2024. New additional flows would be from the United States, as President Joe Biden has promised the European Union.
– THE NEW REGASIFIERS. To be introduced into the network, the LNG must be treated in the regasifiers. To cope with the crisis, the quantities treated in the three existing plants in Panigaglia, off the coast of Rovigo and Livorno, will be increased by 6 billion cubic meters. Snam is negotiating for two other floating structures “The first ship will be operational in the first half of 2023”, announced the Minister of Ecological Transition, Roberto Cingolani, on Saturday indicating a capacity of 5 billion cubic meters per year and, as possible destinations , Piombino, Taranto, Brindisi or the upper Adriatic.
– NATIONAL PRODUCTION. Aid to energy independence also comes from the increase in national production of 2.2 billion cubic meters in areas such as Cassiopeia, Canale di Sicilia and Marche.
– COAL. In the short term, coal and oil could also play a role with a saving of 3-4 billion cubic meters of gas per year.
– RENEWABLE. As a structural response, however, new renewable projects of up to 8 GW per year could lead to savings of 3 billion cubic meters of natural gas per year, but they need time to build and adapt the network. Finally, from the development of biomethane there is a potential for savings of approximately 2.5 cubic meters.